UNIVERSITY OF LAPLAND

FACULTY OF LAW

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The postgraduate degrees in Law are the Licentiate in Laws and the Doctor of Laws.

 

Postgraduate studies in the Faculty of Law involve supervised and guided work, yet they also require initiative and a considerable amount of independent work on the part of the student. During their studies, students take part in lectures and seminars as well as other course work and write their licentiate or doctoral thesis. In the case of both degrees, postgraduate studies promote the student’s scientific thinking and ability to do research independently.

 

According to the Act on Law Degrees, the aim of postgraduate study is to enable students

1) to achieve a deep understanding of their area of research and its social significance, to acquire the skills necessary to apply scientific research methods independently and critically and to create new scientific knowledge;

2) to achieve a sound understanding of the development of their chosen field as well as its basic research problems and research methods; and

3) to achieve a knowledge of the general theory of science and of other disciplines relevant to their area of research that will enable them to follow developments in those fields.

 

The licentiate and doctorate are separate degrees, although their requirements overlap to some extent. Where a postgraduate student completes both degrees, most of the required studies are completed as part of the licentiate.

 

The aim of the Licentiate in Laws degree is to provide practicing lawyers with valuable additional professional education. The degree may also be completed as a step towards eventual completion of the doctorate. In the latter case, it is advisable for students to choose a topic for their licentiate thesis that falls within the same field as that of their doctoral thesis; otherwise completion of the doctorate might be delayed. The projected time required to complete the licentiate degree is two years (120 study points (sp)).

 

The degree of Doctor of Laws is intended for those intending to pursue careers as researchers and legal experts. The projected time required to complete the degree for students studying full time is four years (240 sp).

 

THE APPLICATION PROCESS

Eligibility for postgraduate studies and starting studies

 

Applications for postgraduate study are reviewed twice a year. The deadlines are 15.4 and 30.9 or the business day following these dates should these days fall on a weekend or holiday. Under special circumstances, the right to complete postgraduate studies may be granted outside of these time limits.

 

At the postgraduate level, students specialise in a particular field of law and research topic relating to that field. Before they apply for the right to complete a postgraduate degree, prospective students should discuss their plans with the teacher responsible for their subject and with any potential supervisors.

 

The right to complete a Licentiate in Laws degree may be granted to a student holding a master’s degree in Law or, where sufficient grounds can be presented, to an applicant who has completed another university degree in Finland or abroad. Eligibility for admission is presented in detail below.

 

Applicants must demonstrate that they fulfil the requirements necessary for completing the licentiate degree. Applications should be addressed to the Faculty; the admissions decision is made by the Dean.

 

In their applications, applicants should

-designate their proposed major subject and research topic;

-provide an account of their qualifications for completing the licentiate (e.g. a copy of a diploma); and

-present a research and study plan. This is the most important component of the application and should be prepared with care. A good research proposal contains not only an analytical presentation of the research theme but also an account of the methodology to be used and of how and when the research will be completed. Additional information on how to draw up the research plan can be found in the faculty guidelines for the purpose.

 

 

In their applications, students may suggest the name(s) of potential supervisor(s). Their application can only be accepted if the Faculty has a person who is suitable for and willing to take on the task.

 

The right to complete the degree of Doctor of Laws may be granted to an applicant holding the degree of Licentiate in Laws, directly to an applicant holding a master of laws degree or, where sufficient grounds can be presented, to an applicant who has completed another university degree in Finland or abroad. Eligibility for admission is presented in detail below.

 

Applicants must demonstrate that they fulfil the requirements necessary for pursuing and completing the doctoral degree. Applications should be addressed to the Faculty; the admissions decision is made by the Dean.

 

In their applications, applicants should

-designate their proposed major subject and field of research for the doctorate;

-provide an account of their qualifications for completing the doctorate (e.g. a copy of a diploma, a CV, a tentative plan for financing their studies, as well as any statements from their future supervisor(s) or other expert); and

-present a research study plan. This is the most important component of the application and should be prepared carefully. A good research proposal contains not only an analytical presentation of the research theme but also an account of the methodology to be used and of how and when the research will be completed. Additional information on how to draw up the research plan can be found in the faculty guidelines for the purpose.

 

In their applications, students may suggest the name(s) of potential supervisor(s). Their application can only be accepted if the Faculty has a person who is suitable for and willing to take on the task.

 

Eligibility for applicants holding a degree in a field other than Law

 

Postgraduate degrees in Law are based on profound legal expertise. The content of the degrees has been planned with a view to applicants who hold a basic degree in the field.

 

Notwithstanding, the right to complete a postgraduate degree can be granted to an applicant who holds a higher university degree or relevant higher degree from a university of applied sciences in a field other than Law if the applicant is deemed to have sufficient preparedness for postgraduate studies in Law. Also eligible are persons whom the Faculty considers to have the requisite knowledge and preparedness to pursue postgraduate studies. An application for the right to complete a postgraduate degree must include an account of this knowledge and preparedness.

 

Eligibility for admission based on a foreign degree

 

Applicants seeking the right to complete postgraduate studies based on a foreign degree must attach to their application certified copies of their diploma/final transcript and all other certificates on which their application is based. If a certificate has been issued in a language other than Finnish, Swedish or English, the application must include an official translation of the document into one of these languages. Under special circumstances, the Dean may accept certificates in other languages.

 

The postgraduate-level teaching provided by the Faculty of Law is primarily given in Finnish, with Swedish and English used to some extent as well.  Applicants seeking the right to pursue postgraduate studies based on a foreign degree are required to demonstrate that they are capable of completing the degree in question and that they have a good knowledge of Finnish, Swedish or English.

 

Language skills are assessed in accordance with the language proficiency requirements of the University or in another manner approved by the Dean.  Under special circumstances, the Dean may decide that good skills or a master’s degree completed in a language other Finnish, Swedish or English is sufficient to fulfil the language requirement.

 

Admissions decision

After an application is submitted, two decisions are made: the Dean’s decision on granting the right to study and the Faculty Council’s decision approving the applicant’s tentative study plan, research plan and major subject and appointing a supervisor. If necessary, applicants will be asked to provide supplementary information. Negative admissions decisions may be appealed using the procedure described in the Universities Act.

 

APPROVAL OF TENTATIVE STUDY PLAN (PSP) AND APPOINTMENT OF SUPERVISOR

 

Licentiate degree

 

Upon approving an application for the right to complete the licentiate degree,  the Dean confirms the applicant’s major subject and tentative study plan (PSP) and appoints his/her supervisor. The supervisor appointed by the Dean is either the person suggested by the applicant or, if no suggestion has been made, another suitable person. The appointment requires both that the supervisor commit him-/herself to the task and that the student agree to the arrangement.

 

Those eligible for appointment as supervisors are tenured professors, acting professors (provided they have completed a doctorate or studies entitling them to the title of Doctor), associate professors, research directors or adjunct professors. A student may have one or two supervisors. If he/she has two, one is designated principal supervisor and at least one should be a member of the Faculty. A student’s second supervisor may be an expert who has not completed a doctorate.

 

The Faculty approves the research topic for the licentiate degree and maintains a register of research topics. If the student plans to write a licentiate thesis consisting of several pieces of research, this must be mentioned when requesting confirmation of the proposed topic.

 

Doctoral degree

Upon approving an application for the right to complete the doctoral degree,  the Faculty Council confirms the applicant’s major subject and research plan and tentative study plan (PSP) and appoints his/her supervisor. The teacher responsible for the subject and the person(s) proposed as the applicant’s supervisor(s) submit a written statement to the Faculty regarding the application.  The supervisor appointed by the Faculty is either the person suggested by the applicant or, if no suggestion has been made, another suitable person who has agreed to take on the responsibility. The appointment requires both that the supervisor commit him-/herself to the task and that the supervisee agree to the arrangement.

 

Those eligible for appointment as supervisors are tenured professors, acting professors (provided they have completed a doctorate or studies entitling them to the title of Doctor), associate professors, research directors or adjunct professors. A student may have one or two supervisors. If he/she has two, one is designated principal supervisor and at least one should be a member of the Faculty. A student’s second supervisor may be an expert who has not completed a doctorate.

 

The Faculty approves the research topic for the doctorate degree and maintains a register of research topics. If the student plans to write a doctoral thesis consisting of several pieces of research, this must be mentioned when requesting confirmation of the proposed topic.

 

SUPERVISION AND THE STUDY PLAN

 

Postgraduate students and their supervisors agree on a personal study plan (PSP), which then serves as a tool for future work between them. The basis of the PSP is the tentative plan of studies which students submit to the Faculty for approval at the beginning of their studies. The content of the plan and updating it is agreed on by the student and the supervisor.  The PSP should indicate the motivation for and objectives of the student’s postgraduate studies, a timetable and the order in which the degree requirements will be completed;  it should set out a plan of how contact between the student and his/her supervisor will be arranged. Students who intend to complete their doctoral research/thesis as a series of studies (articles) must include in their PSP a plan pertaining to the doctoral thesis as a whole and indicate the topics of each of the component studies.

 

Supervisors and their students meet at least once per term or more frequently if required by the phase of research in progress and the student’s need for supervision. At the meetings, the supervisor and student update the PSP, discuss the progress of the student’s research and address any challenges the student has encountered. One suitable time for such meetings is the postgraduate study week in November. Supervision is arranged in accordance with the guidelines set out by the Faculty. These have been drawn up on the basis of recommendations by the University’s Teaching and Research Council and have been distributed to all supervisors. The guidelines are available in pdf format on the faculty web pages.

 

CONTENT AND STRUCTURE OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES

 

The successful completion of postgraduate studies in the Faculty of Law requires considerable initiative and independent work on the part of the student. The thesis is a demonstration of the student’s ability to independently and critically apply the methods of scientific research and to create new scientific knowledge. Students have supervision available throughout their studies and their progress is monitored. During their studies, students attend lectures and/or seminars, as well as other courses organized by the Faculty or accepted as fulfilling the degree requirements, and write their thesis. Postgraduate course work is designed to improve the student’s ability to think scientifically and to do research independently. An additional aim is to better prepare those completing a doctorate to work in expert duties in the field of Law outside of the university.

 

Structure of the postgraduate degrees

1. Advanced studies

- Electives (20 sp)

20 sp (Licentiate 15 sp)

2. Method, theory and history

-A) Method (5 sp)

- B) Theory (5 sp)

- C) History (5 sp)

- D) Electives (5 sp)

20 sp (15 sp)

3. Academic skills

-A) Teaching experience (5 sp)

- B) Internationalization (5 sp)

- C) Workshop (5 sp)

- D) Electives (5 sp)

20 sp (10 sp)

4. Doctoral thesis (Licentiate thesis)

180 sp (80 sp)

 

 

Content of postgraduate studies

1) Advanced studies (20 sp/15 sp)

 

Aims

The aim of Advanced Studies is to increase students’ knowledge of the field in which they are writing their thesis, in particular the general theories and special issues connected with their chosen research topic

 

Requirements

 

The Advanced Studies component is completed in a manner agreed with the supervisor. The starting point is a wide range of involvement in academic activity relating to the student’s chosen field and topic. The number of study points that can be obtained from the different activities is determined on the basis of the credit equivalence table presented below. It is also possible to complete Advanced Studies through examinations of literature, the materials for which students are to agree with their supervisor.

 

The requirements for written examinations of literature are determined for each student individually according to his/her needs. The basic rule where credit for examinations of literature is concerned is that one study point corresponds to some 200 pages of reading material. Some of the literature required must be in a foreign language.

 

It is recommended that students complete Advanced Studies at the beginning of their postgraduate study, as the work involved provides a basis for the upcoming degree research.

Responsible teacher

Person who has been designated the student’s supervisor. If the supervisor is not a member of the Faculty, the professor in charge of postgraduate studies in the Faculty handles the task.

 

2) Method, Theory and History (20 sp/15 sp)

 

The Method, Theory and History component of the doctorate comprises three compulsory and one elective module, each of which carries five study points. For the licentiate, the scope of the component is 15 study points, of which five study points have to be courses on legal theory or method. The method and theory modules may be completed by taking part in the Faculty’s postgraduate study week, the theme of which varies.

 

Aims

Upon completion of the Method, Theory and History component of the degree, the postgraduate student:

- is able to identify issues relating to the methods used in legal research

- grasps the position and significance of the doctrine of the sources of law

- is able to apply general methodological considerations to his or her research topic

- is able to identify and apply discussions in the field of law to his/her own topic.

- is able to recognize the legal historical dimensions of his/her research topic.

Requirements

A and B, Method and Legal History. These modules are completed by participating in the annual postgraduate studies seminar (postgraduate studies week). The themes taken up in the seminars vary. Alternatively, the student may complete the requirements by participating in courses or seminars offered elsewhere. The required courses cannot be completed solely by an examination of literature or writing an essay. However, the modules may be completed in part through an essay where this will form part of the student’s thesis. 

C) The module Legal History advances the postgraduate student’s knowledge of legal history as it bears on his or her research topic. The studies are built around three components: history of law/society in general, the history of a particular field of law, and international legal history.

The module may be completed through an examination of literature, by writing an essay or in another manner agreed on with the supervisor. Examples of equivalent work are seminars, lectures and essays. Other acceptable options include courses and seminars completed elsewhere than the University of Lapland. The responsible teacher determines the amount of credit to be granted for work completed, the basis being the credit equivalence table below.

D) Electives. The student is free to define the content of this module in a manner that best supports his/ her postgraduate research. The content is determined in the same way as the three modules described above; for example, a student interested in legal history may complete 5 additional study points of studies in legal history.

 

Responsible teacher

Modules A, B and D (Method, Theory and Electives): Professor Juha Karhu

Module C (Legal History): Professor Kirsi Kuusikko

 

3) Academic Expertise (20 sp/10 sp)

 This component of the degree comprises three compulsory modules and one module whose content the student is free to determine. For students pursuing a doctorate the scope of each compulsory module and of the Electives module is five study points. For those working on a licentiate degree, the scope of the Academic Expertise component is 10 study points; the entire content of the component is elective.

 

Aims

The overarching goal of Academic Expertise is to activate the students to take part in various academic events and activities and thus to help them become members of the academic community. More specifically, the component is designed to improve their preparedness to give presentations in scientific forums, to write academic articles and to pursue opportunities to do research abroad. An additional objective is to better prepare those completing a doctorate to work in expert duties in their field of outside of the university.

 

Requirements

A) Teaching Experience. The required teaching experience may be acquired by participating in teaching duties at the University of Lapland or other university. In addition to teaching proper, credit may be awarded for activities in support of teaching (e.g. work as a teacher-tutor), planning and arranging further education. Credit towards the module may also be given for studies in university pedagogy.

B) Internationalization. The module may be completed by participating in seminars abroad, doing research abroad or publishing work in international publications.

C) Towards the end of their thesis research, all doctoral candidates are to organize a workshop on their topic. The workshop should be designed to support the student’s research, with the student’s supervisor and three or four legal experts invited to attend.  The aim of the workshop is to deepen students’ knowledge of their topic, develop their skills as authors and assist them in finalizing their thesis research. In addition, the workshop provides experience in academic cooperation and reaping the benefits of networks that have been created. The specific practical arrangements for the workshop are worked out on a case-by-case basis between the student, his or her supervisor and the faculty office. As a rule, the Faculty will cover the costs of the workshop. The workshop may be held elsewhere than in Rovaniemi.

D) Electives. Students may choose the content of this module themselves. It may be completed in the same way as other course work or in other ways mentioned in the general table on credit for course work.

 

The module may be completed in a variety of ways: participating in courses offered at the University (e.g. writing skills, scientific communication, legal information management sills, presentation, negotiation project management and pedagogical skills), participating in scientific seminars and comparable events, writing academic publications, doing research abroad or gaining teaching experience. Credit may also be obtained by practicing in a field of law that supports the student’s research and writing a report on this experience.

 

The courses to be completed are agreed in keeping with each individual student’s needs. Suitable courses for this module are offered in the University’s Graduate School, for example. Credit can also be given for courses completed and seminars attended elsewhere, in which case the responsible teacher decides on the amount of credit granted.

 

The student’s supervisor determines the work that will be accepted as part of the degree. If the course/seminar has been assigned a particular value in terms of study points, completion of the course/seminar will be counted accordingly. If no value has been assigned, the student’s supervisor will determine the credit to be awarded.

 

Responsible teacher

Modules A, B and C: Professor Juha Karhu

Module D: Student’s designated supervisor. If the supervisor is not a member of the Faculty, the professor in charge of postgraduate studies in the Faculty handles the task.

 

Recording of credit for postgraduate course work

Students should request the faculty office to record the study points for each component of the degree (1-4) when they have completed all the requirements for it. The professor responsible for the component then accepts the points recorded.

 

Students should themselves keep a record (CV, portfolio, list of publications) of the activities which they intend to present for credit towards the components of the degree. Descriptions of work completed elsewhere than the University may be submitted using the form “Completion of Postgraduate Studies” on the faculty web pages or in another manner approved by the supervisor.

Credit equivalence table

The following list provides an indication of the credit granted for different forms of work and activities that may be applied towards the degree requirements. In unclear and borderline cases, students should contact the professor responsible for the relevant degree component.

Participation for less than 10 hours in lectures, a seminar, reading/study circle, or the like, and keeping of a learning journal

1 sp

Participation for less than 10 hours in a seminar with presentation

2 sp

Participation for 10 hours or more hours in a seminar

1 sp

Participation for 10 hours or more hours in a seminar with presentation

3 sp

Article published in a scientific journal or manuscript judged to be of publishable standard by the student’s supervisor (at least 8 pages)

5 sp

Article published in a Finnish journal with referee procedure (at least 8 pages)

5 sp

Article published in an international journal with referee procedure (at least 8 pages)

5 sp

Research work abroad

1 sp per week, to a maximum of 10 study points

The amount of credit received for teaching experience or other pedagogical activity is determined on a case-by-case basis. In assessing the amount of credit attention is given to how demanding the teaching duties were and the amount of preparation they required. The basic assessment is that ten hours of teaching and associated preparation carry five study points.

 

 

5) LICENTIATE THESIS (80 sp)/DOCTORAL THESIS (180 sp)

 

The licentiate thesis

 

The licentiate degree entails the writing of a thesis in which the student is to demonstrate a sound knowledge of his/her area of research as well as a preparedness to apply scientific research methods critically and independently. A professionally oriented thesis must demonstrate that the author is thoroughly familiar with the field and able to use legal research methods. The suggested length of the licentiate thesis is 100 to 150 pages (12-point font, line spacing 1.5, not counting pages with lists).

 

The licentiate thesis may be composed of a number of scientific publications or manuscripts accepted for publication that deal with the same topic and a summary of these or a work fulfilling comparable scientific criteria. The number of publications must be deemed sufficient by the Faculty. The publications so submitted may be joint publications provided that the author’s independent contribution can be clearly demonstrated.

 

Before the licentiate thesis is submitted for assessment, the author must defend it in a public postgraduate seminar in the subject. The opponent is to be either the teacher appointed to be examiner of the work or other expert.

 

 

Examination and assessment of the licentiate thesis

 

The Faculty Council appoints two examiners for the thesis, one of whom may be the student’s supervisor. Efforts are made to engage a second examiner who is not affiliated with the Faculty of Law at the University

Two bound copies of the thesis are submitted for assessment. A summary page must be included, the form for which is available at http://www.ulapland.fi or from the faculty office.

The licentiate thesis is assessed on a scale from 5 to 10. Both the topic and the grade are marked on the licentiate diploma.

After the licentiate thesis has been approved, if not before, the student must submit five additional copies of the work to the faculty office. These will be distributed to the libraries of the faculties of law at the Universities of Helsinki, Turku, Lapland and Eastern Finland and to the Library of Parliament.

 

Doctoral thesis

 

An essential component of the doctoral degree is the doctoral thesis (180 sp). The thesis must demonstrate that the author has the ability to independently apply scientific research methods and that he or she has a sound knowledge of the chosen field and a profound knowledge of the area of research. The suggested length of a doctoral thesis submitted as a monograph is 250 to 300 pages (12-point font, line spacing 1.5, not counting pages with lists).

 

The doctoral thesis may be composed of a number of scientific publications or manuscripts accepted for publication that deal with the same topic and a summary of these, or a work fulfilling comparable scientific criteria. In principle, the publications should be peer-reviewed. The publications submitted may be joint publications provided that the author’s contribution can be clearly demonstrated.

 

Before the doctoral thesis is assessed, the author must defend it in a public defence.

 

 

Public defence, approval and assessment of the doctoral thesis

 

Examination and permission to defend the thesis

 

The Faculty Council will appoint the examiners for the doctoral thesis upon application by the student. As a rule, the request should not be processed until the student’s supervisor has issued a statement recommending that the thesis be accepted, as the supervisor has an obligation to see to it that the work fulfils the requirements set for a doctoral thesis. Where two supervisors have been designated, it is primarily the main supervisor who judges whether the examination may begin. It is the supervisor’s responsibility to see to it that the quality of the language in thesis is of the standard required in a doctorate. If necessary, the supervisor is to advise the student to ensure that the language is checked and proofread appropriately. 

 

If the student so insists, examiners may be appointed even where the supervisor has not approved the appointment. In such cases, the Faculty Council will request a statement on the matter from the student’s supervisor(s).

 

The principal criterion in choosing examiners is to find persons with the requisite expertise for the task. Only persons who have completed a doctorate or foreign degree of comparable standard may act as examiners. One of the examiners must be a faculty member from an institution other than the Faculty of Law at the University of Lapland. Qualified examiners can be found not only in the student’s own faculty (mainly professors and adjunct professors) but at other faculties of law and other universities where Law is taught, including foreign universities.  Interaction between the Finnish and international scientific communities should be promoted in the examination process, and it is therefore recommended that foreign experts act as examiners. At least one of the examiners should nevertheless be familiar with Finnish academic practices and the assessment criteria for doctoral theses. However, both examiners may be from foreign universities if suitable experts cannot be found in Finland or if the engagement of two foreign examiners can be justified on some other grounds.

 

The examiners’ task is to determine whether the manuscript submitted for acceptance as a doctoral thesis meets the standards for such a work.  Normally the examiners are given three months’ time for their task, during which period the doctoral candidate may not make changes in the manuscript. Each examiner sends an assessment of the manuscript to the Faculty Council in the form of a written statement.

 

The examination must apply to the manuscript version submitted. The examiner’s statement must express clearly whether or not, in his or her view, the manuscript fulfils the criteria for a thesis as submitted for examination. The examiners must set out grounds for positive as well as negative statements. A statement may suggest changes to the manuscript but making the suggested corrections cannot set as a condition for a statement granting permission to defend the thesis.

 

The examination procedure may be extended for a reasonable time after the prescribed deadline pursuant to an agreement between the examiners and the degree candidate in order to allow the candidate to make any necessary corrections. Extensions of the examination period should be reported either orally or in writing to the Dean and the faculty office. If the examination does not result within the prescribed time in a statement recommending that permission be granted to defend the thesis, and no other arrangement is made, the examination procedure lapses. In such cases, the degree candidate may request a new examination when the changes to the manuscript indicated in a statement rejecting the work or other changes have been made and the student’s supervisor approves recommencement of the examination procedure.

 

The examination procedure results in statements recommending that the thesis be accepted, the Faculty Council proceeds to decide on the basis of the statements whether to granting permission to defend the thesis. When the candidate has been granted permission, he or she has the right to publicly defend the manuscript in a defence. In the next step in the process, the Faculty Council decides on the date when the defence will be held and on who will be the opponent(s) and custos and appoints an assessment board.  In addition, the Council decides on the theses to be accepted for publication in the series Acta Universitatis Lapponiensis.

Distribution of the thesis

 

The degree candidate is to see to it that the thesis is publicly distributed prior to the defence in printed or other appropriate form.

 

It is recommended that doctoral theses in Law be published in book form prior to the defence If, exceptionally, the thesis is published solely in electronic form, the place of publication must be an electronic publication series approved by the University of Lapland or other university or commercial publisher. The series must have publishing practices with clear, established, publicly available rules and standards. 

The degree candidate must always provide the University with the number of copies of the thesis requested by the institution. If the thesis has been published in electronic form only, the Faculty will inform the candidate before the public examination and approval of the thesis in what form the work must be submitted to the Faculty. The candidate should be prepared to provide the required number of copies of the thesis to the Faculty in bound, paper form.

 

 Opponent

 

Normally, one of the examiners is appointed as opponent at the defence. Two opponents may be designated where necessary. The assessment of degree work should also be a forum for encouraging interaction between the international and national scientific communities. In assessing the standard of the doctoral thesis on the basis of the examination and the defence, it must be ensured that the criteria applied in the assessment are those used in Finland.

 

Assessment board

 

Unless special reasons exist for proceeding otherwise, the assessment board will be composed of the opponent(s), the examiners, the Custos, the candidate’s supervisor and the tenured professor (or docent) of the relevant subject at the University of Lapland.

 

Assessment of the thesis

 

Within six weeks of the defence, the opponent must submit to the Faculty a statement either accepting or rejecting the thesis. The opponent must present the grounds for his or her assessment and, in particular, it should be clear from the statement what criteria the opponent has applied in assessing the quality of the work.

 

The assessment board appointed by the Faculty Council submits a tentative assessment, in which it proposes that the thesis be either accepted or rejected. No grade is given to an accepted thesis. If an approved thesis is considered particularly commendable work, the Assessment Board, setting out the grounds in its statement, may propose that the Faculty Council award the thesis the distinction “accepted with honours.”