Wednesday 5. June 2019, Lecture Room LS2, in the University of Lapland
Theme: Culturally Sustainable Development Calling for Collaboration
What contribution can the arts make to the sustainability agenda? Cooperation, collaboration and crossing borders are common features of much art, craft and design practice in the 21st century, but what can we learn from the experience of artists, curators and cultural experts?
There are many views about, and definitions of, sustainable development. Three aspects of sustainable development are well-known: ecological, social and economic sustainability. In the Arctic, discussions on sustainability are often connected to natural resources and ecological and economic dimensions. In the world today, cultural sustainability must be seen as an important fourth pillar. Culture is a principle for who we are: from cultural heritage to creative industries, it shapes our identity. We may ask: Is the focus on Arctic culture just the fourth pillar of sustainable development, or is it even more than that? Conceptually, culture incorporates social and economic sustainability. Culture is both an enabler and a driver of the social, environmental and economic dimensions of sustainable development. From a cultural heritage point of view, indigenous knowledge systems and northern eco─social environmental culture in the Arctic include major aspects of social and ecological sustainability. What is the role, and what are the tools, of art and culture in order to secure a sustainable future for the Arctic and the North? Do we need changes in art and culture to take into account simultaneous ecological, social and economic challenges for the Arctic and the North?
Timo Jokela (FI)
Timo Jokela is Professor of Art Education in the Faculty of Art and Design at the University of Lapland. He is also head of University of Arctic’s thematic network on Arctic sustainable art and design. He was also a visiting professor of Art Education and Environmental Art at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (2006–2011). He has been responsible for several international and regional action research projects in the field of art education. Jokela works actively as an environmental artist, often using natural materials and the local cultural heritage as a starting point for his works. He has realized several exhibitions, environmental art, and community art projects in Finland and abroad. Jokela has published several articles and books.
Taqralik Partridge (CA)
Taqralik Partridge is a writer, spoken word poet and curator originally from Kuujjuaq, NU now living in Kautokeino, Norway. Her performance work has been featured on CBC radio one and her writing has been reproduced in Swedish and French language translations. In 2018 she was co-curator of the exhibition Tunirrusiangit: Kenojuak Ashevak and Tim Pitsiulak at the Art Gallery of Ontario. Her short story Igloolik, published in Maisonneuve magazine, won first prize in the 2010 Quebec Writing Competition and has been published in Swedish and French. She is currently Editor-at-Large of the Inuit Art Quarterly and will be a featured artist at the 22nd Biennale of Sydney in 2020.
Monica Tennberg (FI(
Monica Tennberg is a research professor at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Finland, and the leader of the Northern political economy research group. She is a political scientist and has worked with arctic issues, such as international environmental cooperation, politics of climate change adaptation, and everyday political economy and resilience in the Arctic, since late 1980s. She has recently finished a book project “Resources, social and cultural sustainabilities in the Arctic” (Tennberg, Lempinen and Pirnes, eds., Routledge, forthcoming) with her research team at the Arctic centre.
Svetlana Usenyuk-Kravchuk (RU)
Svetlana Usenyuk-Kravchuk is a design researcher with primary interests in the Arctic design, i.e. design for adaptation to the extreme environment, with focus on co-design and user innovation practices, made visible and comprehensible through design ethnography. She has pursued these interests to date by conducting fieldwork and user innovation research in different localities of the Russian and Scandinavian North. She graduated as a PhD in 2011 from the Ural State University of Architecture and Art (USUAA), Russia, then worked as a postdoc at Aalto University, Finland (2011-2015), and at the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (2015-2016). Currently, she is Assistant Professor at the Department of Industrial Design and a Head of the research lab on innovation and creativity at the USUAA.
Maria Utsi (NO)
Maria Utsi is the director of the Arctic Arts Festival in Harstad, Norway. With strong profiles of northern arts and culture, the festival annually produces and presents innovative and collaborative projects from all over the high north. Maria Utsi has worked across the Arctic to promote arts and culture as a key factor in the development of the high north. She has a broad network across the Arctic countries, and was a driving force behind the first Arctic Arts Summit, in Harstad, Norway. Utsi is a member of the Norwegian Arts Council. She studied theatre science at the University of Bergen.
The rapid economic, ecological and social changes shaping the Arctic region and its environments and communities are also impacting cultures and cultural life in the circumpolar north. Amidst these processes of change, cultural policies and programmes have a pivotal role in promoting cultural diversity and activity and cultural sustainability in the region. Meanwhile, policies from other sectors of the society also create, enable and constrain the conditions for culture, cultural activities and cultural sustainability without even specifically aiming to do so. In this panel disussion focusing on the interplay of culture, politics and cultural policies and politics in the Arctic, the focus is on but not limited to Arctic and cultural policies of Arctic states, the European Union or UNESCO; cultural diversity and cultural sustainability in the Arctic region; the interplay between the creative sector and local, regional and state policies; and creating models for art and cultural policy that promote circumpolar cooperation, cultural sustainability and sustainable development.
Hanna Lempinen (FI)
Dr. Hanna Lempinen is a university lecturer at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland and a visiting research fellow at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland. Lempinen’s background is in International Relations, Science Communications and Environmental Sociology. Her research interests include social and cultural sustainability and sustainable development and social and cultural dimensions of “development” and industrial activity in the circumpolar north. Lempinen’s current research focuses on Finnish peat energy production as a sociocultural concern.
Nadezhda Bazhenova (RU)
Nadezhda Bazhenova is a head specialist
at the International Department of the Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar Stare
University (Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, Russia). She has her BA degree in
Finno-Ugric Studies and her MA in Political Studies. For a long time she worked
as a coordinator and head editor of the Finno-Ugric Information Center and
organized the first E-Library of publications in Finno-Ugric languages of
Russia. At the same time, she has a special interest in Art and Design and she
took part in several projects aimed at promoting art and design international
education and student exchange between Russia and Nordic Countries.
Particularly, she was responsible for realizing the LiLa (Living in Landscape)
project in the Syktyvkar University, Komi Republic. She takes active part in
ASAD and UArctic Networks. Currently she is actively involved in organizing the
Relate North 2019 congress in Syktyvkar.
Baldur Þórir Guðmundsson (IS)
Baldur Þórir Guðmundsson is a senior advisor at the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture in Iceland. He holds a MSc in Strategy and Management. For the last 10 years he has served in the Committee of Culture and Education in his home town of Reykjanesbær. He has taken part in setting up museums, exhibitions and shows in various magnitudes around Iceland. He is an active musician and record producer and has performed and recorded with a multitude of Icelandic musicians. As cultural advisor for the ministry he is a representative to the Iceland Symphony Orchestra and various museums and handles other diverse cultural projects.
Per Nilsson (SE)
Per Nilsson has a PhD in Philosophy and is an Associate Professor (docent) in Philosophy: Focusing on the Philosophies of Art. He is a senior lecturer in art at Umeå Academy of Fine Art. He is the author of two books, The Amphibian Stan: An Essay Concerning Research Processes in Fine Art and Non Serviam: Philosophical Essays on Arts of Living.
Magne Svineng (NO)
Svineng, Sámi from the Norwegian side of Sápmi. Hes has born in
Karasjok and grown up on a small farm just outside Karasjok and still
living there, but has no animals on the farm today. He has been employed
at the Sami Parliament in Karasjok since 2010, where his role is to be
the Head of administration at the department for cultural, industry and
health. The cultural section in this department has the responsibility
for artand cultural development
among the Sámi people and societies on the Norwegian side, including
art- and cultural institutions like Sámi theatres, museums, festivals
and other cultural institutions. Sami artists can also apply for funding
from the Sami parliament, for example for music-, literature-, film-
and similar projects.
Outi Snellman (FI)
Outi Snellman, Vice-President, Organization, University of the Arctic and Director of International Relations, University of Lapland, Finland Outi Snellman has been working on International Education and the development of cooperation in higher education in the Circumpolar Region for the past 20 years in her capacity as the Director of International Relations at the University of Lapland (1990- ) and Secretary General for the Circumpolar Universities Association (1992-1998) as well as Vice-President Administration of the University of the Arctic. Among many northern projects, she was the European leader of the first Circumpolar student mobility program, the North Consortium, funded by EU. As Secretary General of CUA she led the feasibility study for the University of the Arctic and has been the head of the UArctic International Secretariat since its establishment. In the recent years she has been highly active in enhancing higher education collaboration between the circumpolar north and non-Arctic countries like China and Japan in the context of UArctic's Thematic Networks as well as bilateral academic collaboration between Finland and non-Arctic countries.
Arctic was rapidly urbanized in the last century and new development projects are under way. But how that urban fabric connected to local culture — both in city planning, architecture and urban design? As local Arctic indigenous cultures are mostly non-urban by their roots, what kind of urban environment they can thrive in? Can new hyperlocal urban typologies evolve from vernacular techniques? How those can de designed — what design processes should be applied? And if a large partition of current Arctic population came from other places, how they can settle their own cultures in new northern home? Should they bring their habitation patterns into Arctic area, adapt to local way of urban living, or create a new mixture with both of those? How correct is it to talk about new arctic cultures and arts born in the cities?
Sergei Kulikov (RU)
Sergei studied art and architecture history in Lomonosov Moscow State University. He works as a writer, editor, independent curator, urban and land development consultant and analyst. Sergei worked as supervisor and tutor at Thinning research studio (Strelka institute for Media, Architecture and Design), led by professor of London Architecture Association Josef Grima, and assistant professor of Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts Jiang Jun. The studio focused on the complex phenomenon covering shrinking cities and specific urban environments where new architecture results in low density population. As an expert in the consortium led by French architecture firm l’AUC Sergei took part in the international competition of Greater Moscow (2012), the project was ranked among the top ten. As analyst and consultant in consulting firm KB “Strelka” (Moscow) Sergei participated in number of development projects, including developing the vision and program of the new Zaryadye park located next to the Kremlin and a foresight model for Baykalsk pulp and paper mill at Baykal lake. In 2015, in collaboration with Ivan Kuryachiy and Anton Kalgaev he established the Project North think tank focused on innovative approaches to research and development of Arctic territories. Now he is working on the Architectural guide to Arctic cities for DOM Publishers (Berlin).
Ivan Kuryachiy (RU)
Ivan is a founding partner of Novaya Zemlya urban research and planning company. One of the major projects ongoing is a Human Development Index of Russian regional cities — based on UN Habitat methodology and adapted to Russian municipal statistics. As a research fellow at Faculty of Urban and Regional Development of Higher School of Economics in Moscow, Ivan engaged in research and academic activities related to sustainable development of shrinking cities and strategic planning of urban metropolitan areas. In collaboration with Sergei Kulikov and Anton Kalgaev he operates Project North think tank focused on research and development of Arctic territories. Project North took part in Nordkalottsymposiet in Kirkenes, Intercult project in Archangelsk, Arctic-related events in Tromse, Saint Petersburg, and Nikel.
Julius Oförsagd (FI)
Julius Oförsagd is the CEO and Creative Director of his own company Arctic Factory. Julius, a producer and a design consultant, graduated from the University of Lapland with a Master of Art and Design. Julius believes clever Arctic designs are the solution to a sustainable and long lasting Arctic region and is passionate about giving arctic design the platform it deserves. Julius has been working with many kind of industries doing projects from healthcare development, architecture and tourism to theater, films and events. Julius has been producing the world’s northernmost design week nine years. Julius has a passion to make dreams come true and is constantly dreaming beyond now and designing a better future.
Piia Rantala-Korhonen (FI)
Piia Rantala-Korhonen works as director and Advisor to the Mayor in city of Oulu, responsible for International Affairs and the bidding office of Oulu2026 European Capital of Culture. She has worked with art and culture in many organizations on national and international level, for ex. as Executive Chair of National Arts Committee and as Secretary General of Artists Association of Finland. Rantala-Korhonen was born in Helsinki 1962; she works and lives now in Oulu, Finland. She holds a Master of Science degree from the University of Helsinki. She has made postgraduate studies in Governance, Leadership and Management.
This panel is examining the artistic and design practices that contribute to the wellbeing in the peripheries or other ways disadvantaged or underserved communities. The panel is connected with the University of Lapland’s academic profiling area called “Arctic Art and Design”. It is interested in theories that explain of contribute to the wellbeing and common good often underpinned in the artistic and design practices in the margins. The panel is visually facilitated and there will be a visual concept map as an outcome of the panel.
Satu Miettinen is a professor of service design at the University of Lapland. She works as a dean of the Faculty of Art and Design, For several years she has been working with service design research and authored number of books and research publications in this area. She is PI and co-ordinator in several national and international service design research projects funded. Satu Miettinen has worked as a visiting professor in Stanford University in USA, Tongji University in China and at the University of Trento in Italy. She also has a strong design research interest for the complex, extreme and marginal contexts.
Melanie Sarantou (AU)
Melanie Sarantou is a senior researcher at the University of Lapland for the Arctic Art and Design Profiling Area, which includes the supervision of doctoral and master candidates in the areas of service and social design. Melanie is a member of the Service Design Research Group and her current research draws on social design and arts-based research in marginalised communities in Finland, Australia and Namibia. Her intense involvement in Namibian craft and design development spanned over two decades. She mapped this field in her PhD research (2010-2013), lectured Design and Fashion at the University of Namibia (1997-2007) and worked with Namibian women entrepreneurs and SMEs in areas of design and business development (2005-2009).
Beaulé Caoimhe (CA)
Caoimhe is a Canadian/ Irish multidisciplinary designer and researcher from Montréal, with a background in visual arts, sustainable design, and creative processes. Her current research revolves around emerging design practices, like service and strategic design, and their role in individual and community development in Northern regions and winter cities. She is now pursuing doctoral studies in culture-based service design at the University of Lapland. She was also part of the Tapiskwan Collective design team from 2015-2018, an indigenous non-profit organisation that works to use design and crafts as tools for empowerment and intergenerational knowledge transfer within Atikamekw communities (Québec, Canada). Her recent work brought her to travel within Canada, Japan (Hokkaido) and the Nordics for an ongoing project called "snowhow".
Anton Kalgaev (RU)
Anton Kalgaev is a curator, editor, and co-founder of “Project North” think-tank. Anton graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy at Saint-Petersburg State University, and Strelka Institute for Media, Architecture and Design (Hinterland studio, led by Rem Koolhaas). As a curator at Strelka, he worked on Institute’s public programme in 2013 and co-curated Fair Enough, award-winning exhibition in the Russian Pavilion at Venice Architecture Biennale in 2014. He published books Hypercube. Making the First Building in Skolkovo (2015) and Matrex (2016) together with architect Boris Bernaskoni. In 2018, Anton released 600-pages Age of Agglomerations — the result of international research of the economy, space and politics of the largest cities. Being interested in the development at high latitudes, Anton organized discussion sessions, participated in research projects and made reports on relevant issues.
Dëneze Nakehk’o (CA)
Dëneze Nakehk’o is Dehcho and Denesuline Dene from Denendeh. He is a strong advocate for Indigenous knowledge systems, particularly Dene ways of knowing. As one of the founding members of Dene Nahjo, he works at encouraging and supporting connections/re-connections to land, language and culture. Dëneze is a public speaker that recognizes and actively confronts the impacts of colonization through Dene methods of decolonization. He has over a decades worth of experience in northern media and communications. Dëneze is originally from Łıı́dl ́ ı̨Kúę ̨́but now lives in Yellowknife.
Päivi Tahkokallio (FI)
Päivi Tahkokallio is Founder and CEO of Tahkokallio Design+, a design thinking agency from Lapland, Finland. Päivi, with her track record on strategic design has been called the mother of Arctic Design, a design approach to support sustainable development of the Arctic. She helped the city of Rovaniemi to partner up with Helsinki, the World Design Capital in 2012, and was the catalyst of inclusion of Arctic Design in the national Arctic Strategy of Finland. Päivi has extensive experience in the inclusive approach to design. During the 20 years with the University of Art and Design Helsinki (now Aalto ARTS) and The National R&D Centre for Healthcare and Wealth, Päivi became an international advocate of Design for All. From May 2019 Päivi is President of BEDA, The Bureau of European Design Associations, and Vice President of Ornamo Art and Design Finland. She is the Chair of Design Committee of Lapland Chamber of Commerce and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce (FRSA, London, UK).
Saila-Inkeri Puukko (FI)
Presenting Our Stories project
Saila-Inkeri Puukko works as a project manager in Lapland University of Applied Sciences. Saila holds M.Ed. on Adult Education from University of Lapland. She also holds a teacher`s pedagogical qualification from Oulu University of Applied Sciences. Saila has long expertise on international project management in the higher education industry. She is skilled in management of international networks, developing project in the fields of business, marketing and arts & design. Now she coordinates the international “Our Stories –along the Northern Lights Route” project (Interreg Nord) to promote the North Calotte through region specific stories and storytelling.
Jenni Kemi (FI)
Presenting Our Stories project
Jenni Kemi works as a project planner in Lapland University of Applied Sciences. She has graduated as a Bachelor of Business Administration and a Bachelor of Hospitality Management. Her projects are mainly related to business development. She has a strong experience working with businesses in various sectors especially in tourism field. She is also working with the project called Our Stories – along the Northern Lights Route to promote the North Calotte trough region specific stories and storytelling.
Elina Söderström (FI)
Presenter, Our Stories Project
Elina Söderström is a landscspe architect, MsC (graduated from SLU Alnarp in Sweden),an artist and an entrepreneur from Tornio, Finland. She and her husband Esa Rautiainen have a company called Studio E-City, specializing in music, landscape architecture and tourism, with owning and running a B&B in Tornio. They are also members of VisaNordica, a music group. Studio E-City is one of the partners in a project called "Our Stories - along the Northern Lights Route". Elina is one of the project managers and also a musician in "Our Stories". This project aims to promote the North Calotte- region through stories and storytelling with words, art. film and music collected and created along the river Tornio and the Northern Lights Route.
Kirsi Suomi (FI)
Presenting Culturally Responsible Sámi Tourism -project
Kirsi Suomi is a Coordinator in Culturally Responsible Sámi Tourism -project at the Sámi Parliament in Finland, the representative self-government body of the Sámi in Finland. The rapid growth of tourism has increased challenges to cultural sustainability, especially in the context of Sámi culture. The project’s main goal has been to create ethical guidelines for Sámi tourism to address these challenges. As a result, the Sámi Parliament in Finland approved Principles for Responsible and Ethically Sustainable Sámi Tourism in September 2018. The main aim of these guidelines is to terminate tourism exploiting Sámi culture and, instead, to distribute correct information about the Sámi through tourism based on the Sámi culture. The guidelines also aim at safeguarding the vitality of the Sámi community and Sámi culture for the future generations. Kirsi has a BSc in Anthropology from University College London and MA in Social Sciences from Helsinki University.
Katia Zatuliveter (RU)
Katia Zatuliveter, Russian social entrepreneur, founder and CEO of Altourism, expert in community building and rural development.
The arts and culture-based economies have garnered significant attention in the Arctic during the last 10 years. Florida’s seminal propositions (2004; 2005) initiated broad-based discussions and stimulated noteworthy challenges based on geographies of difference and diverse ideologies on purpose. This panel discussion aims to uncover the particular manifestations of the creative sector in the circumpolar north, and examine the way it engages (or not) with tourism. It is motivated to identify and learn from the specific similarities and differences that exist across the region – laterally across the northern pole, from East to West. A key question used to prompt reflective discussion is: How are arts and cultural makers engaging with expectations for tourism-based economies, and what characterizes their (in)ability to support economic diversification through tourism? Related questions include: What new opportunities are emerging due to the increasing cultural diversity and enhanced intercultural encounters present in the Arctic? How do the arts and culture support Indigenous empowerment, self-determination, and mutual learning? What role do/can arts and culture have in revitalizing the peripheral communities of the Arctic? Are there specific manifestations of innovation and entrepreneurial activity tied to arts and culture in circumpolar geographies?
Suzanne de la Barre (CA)
Suzanne de la Barre, PhD, is a long-time Yukoner who has worked with community-based creative, cultural and tourism organizations for over 20 years. A cultural geographer and former arts and travel magazine publisher and editor (Hit the Road Press, Yukon, 1991-1995), her research and applied projects focus on the circumpolar world, economic diversification and building place resilience, arts, culture, and the possibility of community development through tourism. Suzanne teaches in the Department of Recreation and Tourism Management and the Master of Arts in Sustainable Leisure Management Program at Vancouver Island University (Canada), and the University of the Arctic’s Graduate Certificate in Northern Tourism. She is part of the leadership team of the International Polar Tourism Research Network, and coordinated their International 2018 Community Conference in Yukon (Canada) which focussed on the creative sector and tourism. She lives in Whitehorse (Yukon) and Nanaimo (British Columbia).
Charlene Alexander (CA)
Charlene Alexander has worked in Canada’s North as a presenter, curator and administrator for over 30 years. Her career began in Inuvik, Northwest Territories where she co-founded and produced the Great Northern Arts Festival from 1989 to 1998. Since moving to Yukon in 1998, Charlene has been a leader in sector development and instrumental in establishing arts initiatives and international events including Arts Underground, Project YFN 2010 and the Adäka Cultural Festival. Project YFN 2010 was an unprecedented 2-year project that took 70 Yukon Indigenous artists,performers, elders and youth to the Vancouver 2010 Olympics to tell their story on the world stage through a wide range of exhibitions, performances and cultural celebrations. Now in it’s 9th year, the Adaka Cultural Festival is recognized internationally as an important artistic gathering for indigenous artists and a cornerstone tourism attraction for Yukon. In 2012 Charlene brought her passion for the arts together with the growing Indigenous tourism industry and helped to establish the Yukon First Nations Culture and Tourism Association (YFNCT). In her role as the Executive Director of YFNCT, Charlene and her team work with artists, tourism entrepreneurs, and many partners across Yukon and Canada to help grow and promote strong and sustainable culture and tourism sectors for the benefit of all Yukon communities. The Governor General of Canada recognized Charlene for her work In the Northwest Territories in 2004 with a Meritorious Service Medal.
Oula Guttorm (FI)
Oula Guttorm is the producer of Ijahis idja indigenous people’s music festival. The festival takes place every year in the middle of August in Finnish Lapland in the village of Inari. It is the only festival in Finland that focuses on Sámi music and indigenous music. Guttorm works in Sámi Music Centre which is a project under the Finnish Sámi Parliament. Apart from the festival he also produces smaller concerts, events and Sámi music workshops during the year. In addition, Sámi Music Centre aims to promote Sámi musicians and improve their possibilities to work as professional musicians. Guttorm is a Sámi musician himself and has been in the industry over 10 years. He has also worked as a manager and booking agent for many Sámi artists in Finland such as Ailu Valle, Niillas Holmberg and Wimme & Rinne.
Francis Joy (UK/FI)
Francis Joy is an English man living in Rovaniemi, Finland who graduated as a Doctor in the study of Sámi Religion and Art in 2018, from the University of Lapland Faculty of Art and Design. Between 2010 and 2015, Francis worked as a researcher with the Indigenous Peoples Research Team at the Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi, engaging in the study of Sámi traditional religion, cosmology, shamanism and the relationship between these practices and prehistoric rock art and the art painted on sacred Sámi drums, used by the religious specialist in Sámi culture, the Noaidi. More recently, his research has been examining the appropriation of Sámi cultural heritage into the tourism industry in Finland and the consequences of such actions for the Sámi and their culture in terms of identity theft because of failed legislation.
Soile Veijola (FI)
Soile Veijola is Professor of Cultural Studies of Tourism at University of Lapland, in Rovaniemi, Finland. Her merits are almost forty years of active engagement in international Tourism Academia. Her Phd in sociology at the University of Helsinki in the 90s dealt with mobile subjects and situated knowledges in tourism, mixed team play, and sociological narration. Since then she has explored e.g. tourism as work, the tourist dwelling, silence in tourism, slow methodologies of co-writing, gender in the Coding Society, and future initiatives in tourism based on “undressed places of the global north”. She has a strong orientation to ethical guidelines and sustainable mobilities in academic collaboration, and a special interest in accessible and systematic design of academic theses. Her co-authored publications include e.g. The Body in Tourism (1994), Mobile Neighboring (2016), Disruptive Tourism and Its Untidy Guests. Alternative Ontologies for Future Hospitalities (Palgrave 2014), and Matkasanakirja hiljaisuuteen [A Travel Dictionary into Silence] (2018). At the current moment, she leads a team that focuses on multidisciplinary measurements of the impacts of sustainably growing tourism in cultural environments (MAMOMI www.ulapland.fi/mamomi, VNK).